Eighteen cases of culture positive melioidosis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, were seen in four geographically separate communities in North Queensland, Australia. The genetic inter-relatedness of the clinical isolates were compared utilising random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE). The isolates segregated into two groups that correlated with clinical presentation rather than geographical location. This is the first described association between the varied clinical presentations of this condition and specific molecular type. If proven on larger studies, this may further our understanding of the pathogenesis of this important condition.