We have analysed the correction of defined mismatches in wild-type and msh2, msh3, msh6 and msh3 msh6 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in two different yeast strain backgrounds by transformation with plasmid heteroduplex DNA constructs. Ten different base/base mismatches, two single-nucleotide loops and a 38-nucleotide loop were tested. Repair of all types of mismatches was severely impaired in msh2 and msh3 msh6 mutants. In msh6 mutants, repair efficiency of most base/base mismatches was reduced to a similar extent as in msh3 msh6 double mutants. G/T and A/C mismatches, however, displayed residual repair in msh6 mutants in one strain background, implying a role for Msh3p in recognition of base/base mismatches. Furthermore, the efficiency of repair of base/base mismatches was considerably reduced in msh3 mutants in one strain background, indicating a requirement for MSH3 for fully efficient mismatch correction. Also the efficiency of repair of the 38-nucleotide loop was reduced in msh3 mutants, and to a lesser extent in msh6 mutants. The single-nucleotide loop with an unpaired A was less efficiently repaired in msh3 mutants and that with an unpaired T was less efficiently corrected in msh6 mutants, indicating non-redundant functions for the two proteins in the recognition of single-nucleotide loops.