In 46,XY individuals, testes are determined by the activity of the SRY gene (sex-determining region Y), located on the short arm of the Y chromosome. The other genetic components of the cascade that leads to testis formation are unknown and may be located on the X chromosome or on the autosomes. Evidence for the existence of several loci associated with failure of male sexual development is indicated by reports of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis associated with structural abnormalities of the X chromosome or of autosomes (chromosomes 9, 10, 11 and 17). In this report, we describe the investigation of a child presenting with multiple congenital abnormalities, mental retardation and partial testicular failure. The patient had a homogeneous de novo 46,XY,inv dup(9)(pter-->p24.1::p21.1-->p23.3::p24.1-->qter) chromosome complement. No deletion was found by either cytogenetic or molecular analysis. The SRY gene and DSS region showed no abnormalities. Southern blotting dosage analysis with 9p probes and fluorescent in situ hybridisation data indicated that the distal breakpoint of the duplicated fragment was located at 9p24.1, proximal to the SNF2 gene. We therefore suggest that a gene involved in normal testicular development and/or maintenance is present at this position on chromosome 9.