Rapid technological advances in the field of molecular genetics are being applied successfully to the analysis of migraine. Specific mutations leading to an increased risk of rare forms of migraine have been identified in both mitochondrial DNA and a calcium channel gene. Association studies have demonstrated that polymorphic variations in serotonergic and dopaminergic genes may alter the clinical susceptibility to migraine. Massive amounts of additional genetic data relating to migraine will be generated in the next few years. These data are revolutionizing the diagnosis and management of migraine, a heretofore subjective clinical disorder.