The oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) is a 110-kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked protein that was initially identified as a myelin-specific protein but whose precise function remains unknown. In this study, immunohistochemistry, western blots, in situ hybridization, and northern blots were used to determine the distribution of OMgp in the mouse brain. OMgp is present in a concentration detectable on western blots in the brains of newborn mice, and its concentration gradually increases until day 24 of life. OMgp mRNA is also present in amounts detectable on northern blots in the brains of newborn mice, and its concentration gradually increases until day 21 of life, after which the concentration diminishes a little. Most of the OMgp in the mouse brain appears to be expressed in diverse groups of neurons, but it is particularly prominent in large projection neurons such as the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, motoneurons in the brainstem, and anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. However, OMgp is not confined to these cells and is expressed in cells in the white matter as well. The OMgp gene is placed within an intron of the neurofibromatosis type I gene and on the opposite strand. This organization raises the possibility that there may be a relationship between the functions of the products of the two genes. In support of this possibility, we show that within the mouse CNS OMgp and neurofibromin are expressed in the same cell types.