Botryomycosis is an uncommon bacterial disease characterized by the microscopic formation of eosinophilic granules that resemble those of infection by Actinomyces species. The diagnosis of botryomycosis can be made when microscopic inspection and culture of the granules reveal gram-positive cocci or gram-negative bacilli. Botryomycosis is caused by common bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, yet the host and microbial factors that contribute to the pathobiology remain unknown. Pulmonary botryomycosis can resemble actinomycosis, tuberculosis, or invasive carcinoma by causing a mass lesion with constitutional symptoms. Radiographically, it invades bone and disrupts tissue planes. Successful treatment often requires a combination of both surgical debridement and long-term antimicrobial therapy. We report a case of primary pulmonary botryomycosis and review the literature on this unusual infectious process.