Validating an American scale in Hong Kong: the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)

J Psychol. 1998 Mar;132(2):169-86. doi: 10.1080/00223989809599157.


The construct validity of a Chinese-language version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) was tested on a sample of 138 Hong Kong Chinese married couples. Confirmatory factor analysis identified 2 factors: (a) depressive symptom factors and (b) interpersonal problem factors. Those factors attained convergent, discriminant, and structural validity when evaluated against social desirability. The CES-D also manifested nomological validity in terms of its significant relationships with measures of life satisfaction and stressful life events.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Depression* / diagnosis
  • Depression* / ethnology
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Hong Kong
  • Humans
  • Life Change Events
  • Likelihood Functions
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / standards*
  • Psychometrics / standards*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Social Desirability
  • Spouses / psychology
  • Translating