Multiple genes control the development of autoimmune diabetes both in humans and in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) strain of mouse. Previously, three insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) genes, Idd3, Idd10, and Idd17, were localized to mouse Chromosome (Chr) 3. The B10- or B6-derived resistance alleles at Idd10 and Idd3 together provide the NOD mouse with nearly complete protection from diabetes. In the present study, the 10.2-cM region encoding Idd10 was defined further with newly developed congenic strains. A locus, located in the centromeric 2.1 cM of the 10.2 cM region, contributed to the Idd10 trait. However, this locus did not account for the full effect of Idd10, suggesting the presence of a second gene in the distal portion of the 10.2-cM region. This second gene is designated as Idd18 and is localized to a 5.1-cM region. The resolution of the originally defined Idd3 locus into at least four separate loci, Idd3, Idd10, Idd17, and Idd18, illustrates the complex polygenic nature of diabetes.