Effects of a movement and swimming program on water orientation skills and self-concept of kindergarten children with cerebral palsy

Percept Mot Skills. 1998 Feb;86(1):111-8. doi: 10.2466/pms.1998.86.1.111.


In this study the effect of an experimental movement and swimming program of six months on motor function in the water measured by means of the Water Orientation Score and self-perception measured by means of the Martinek-Zaichkowsky Self-concept Scale was investigated. 23 children participated in the program, completing both tests prior to and after the intervention. An age-, sex-, and disability-matched control group of 23 children completed only the Self-concept Scale at pre- and posttest. Analysis indicated a significant improvement in Water Orientation Score of children in the trained group, but no effect on scores of the Self-concept Scale.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cerebral Palsy / psychology*
  • Cerebral Palsy / rehabilitation*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Exercise Therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Movement
  • Orientation*
  • Physical Education and Training
  • Self Concept*
  • Swimming*