Historical perspective. Ernest Amory Codman, 1869-1940. A pioneer of evidence-based medicine: the end result idea

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1998 Mar 1;23(5):629-33. doi: 10.1097/00007632-199803010-00019.


Unappreciated during his career and largely uncelebrated today, Ernest A. Codman made profound contributions to medical practice and outcomes research. The origin of the present emphasis on evidence-based medicine began with Codman and his "end result" idea. Codman's ideas, courage, and persistence played a critical role in the transition from the 19th century artisan style of medical practice to the current scientific basis of medicine. This historical perspective is a tribute to Codman's contributions to medical science and highlights his remarkable career.

Publication types

  • Biography
  • Historical Article
  • Portrait

MeSH terms

  • Evidence-Based Medicine / history*
  • History, 19th Century
  • History, 20th Century
  • Hospitals, General / history
  • Massachusetts

Personal name as subject

  • E A Codman