Exposure of casino employees to environmental tobacco smoke

J Occup Environ Med. 1998 Mar;40(3):270-6. doi: 10.1097/00043764-199803000-00009.


Environmental and medical evaluations were performed to evaluate occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among casino employees. Air concentrations of both nicotine and respirable dust were similar to those published in the literature for other non-industrial indoor environments. The geometric mean serum cotinine level of the 27 participants who provided serum samples was 1.34 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) (pre-shift) and 1.85 ng/mL (post-shift). Both measurements greatly exceeded the geometric mean value of 0.65 ng/mL for participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) who reported exposure to ETS at work. This evaluation demonstrates that a sample of employees working in a casino gaming area were exposed to ETS at levels greater than those observed in a representative sample of the US population, and that the serum and urine cotinine of these employees increased during the workshift.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cotinine / blood
  • Cotinine / urine
  • Environmental Monitoring*
  • Gambling
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Nicotine / analysis
  • Occupational Exposure / analysis*
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / analysis*


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  • Nicotine
  • Cotinine