Background: The central nervous system is often involved in Behcet's disease. Most common are meningoencephalitic and brain stem syndromes. Although basal ganglia involvement is not an uncommon finding on necropsy, there are only single reports on extrapyramidal syndromes-dyskinesia, chorea and Parkinsonism in patients with Behcet's disease.
Case study: We report a patient fulfilling the criteria of the International Study Group for Behcet's disease. He had recurrent oral ulcerations, bilateral posterior uveitis and retinal vasculitis, skin papules and pustules, and recurrent monoarthritis. Neurologic examination revealed pseudobulbar palsy, slight and asymmetric bilateral pyramidal syndrome, muscle rigidity involving the four limbs, bradykinesia, masked face, and impaired postural reflexes. There was postural tremor in the extremities and myoclonic jerks involving the tongue and face muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated small bilateral multifocal hyperintense lesions, with right predilection, involving the periventricular white matter, brain stem and basal ganglia.
Conclusions: The Parkinsonian syndrome found in our patient might be due to involvement of both substantia nigra and basal ganglia. This case further emphasizes the wide spectrum of the neurological manifestations of Behcet's disease.