Expression of CDR1, a multidrug resistance gene of Candida albicans: transcriptional activation by heat shock, drugs and human steroid hormones

FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998 Mar 15;160(2):191-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1998.tb12910.x.


We have examined the expression of CDR1 (Candida drug resistance gene) in different stress conditions. There was a significant but transient enhancement of CDR1 expression associated with elevated temperatures. Most noteworthy transcriptional activation was observed with miconazole and vinblastine. Interestingly, beta-estradiol and progesterone were also able to enhance CDR1 expression. Elevated levels of CDR1 and CDR2 (a homologue of CDR1) mRNA were found in some azole-resistant clinical isolates of C. albicans. CaMDR1 (benomyl-resistant) expression, however, did not differ among all the resistant isolates. Our results confirm the existence of multiple mechanisms of azole resistance in C. albicans.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology*
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Candida albicans / drug effects
  • Candida albicans / genetics*
  • Candida albicans / growth & development
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial / genetics
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple
  • Estradiol / pharmacology
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal
  • Genes, Fungal
  • Genes, MDR*
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones / pharmacology*
  • Heat-Shock Response*
  • Humans
  • Membrane Transport Proteins*
  • Miconazole / pharmacology
  • Progesterone / pharmacology
  • Temperature
  • Transcriptional Activation*
  • Vinblastine / pharmacology


  • Antifungal Agents
  • CDR1 protein, Candida albicans
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Progesterone
  • Estradiol
  • Vinblastine
  • Miconazole