Oral and nonoral sources of halitosis

J Calif Dent Assoc. 1997 Feb;25(2):127-31.


Oral malodor (halitosis, bad breath) is a condition affecting millions of Americans. In healthy individuals complaining of bad breath, the mouth is the main source of their oral malodor, more specifically the posterior dorsum of the tongue. Nonoral sources should also be considered. It is always easy to recognize halitosis, but identifying the exact cause is more complex.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chronic Disease
  • Foreign Bodies / complications
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / complications
  • Halitosis / etiology*
  • Halitosis / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Lung Diseases / complications
  • Mouth Diseases / complications
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds / metabolism
  • Tongue / microbiology


  • Sulfhydryl Compounds