Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp160 and gp41 binding to Candida albicans selectively enhances candidal virulence in vitro

J Infect Dis. 1998 Apr;177(4):1057-63. doi: 10.1086/515231.


Previously, it has been shown that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 envelope proteins gp160 and gp41 bind to Candida albicans. Whether this interaction affects candidal virulence in vitro was investigated. HIV-1 gp160 or gp120 treatment of C. albicans significantly altered neither growth nor phospholipase activity of the fungus. However, treatment of C. albicans with gp160, but not with gp120, led to an elevation of free and cell-bound aspartate proteinase. In addition, culture supernatants obtained from C. albicans treated with gp160 or gp41, but not with gp120, showed a strong increase in proteinase activity. Finally, C. albicans viable yeast cells treated with gp160 or gp41 and serum were phagocytosed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes to a lesser extent than was C. albicans treated with gp120 and serum or serum alone. These findings suggest that the interaction between HIV-1 gp160 and C. albicans may promote the virulence of C. albicans in HIV-1-positive patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Fungal / analysis
  • Antigens, Fungal / immunology
  • Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases / metabolism
  • Candida albicans / growth & development
  • Candida albicans / metabolism*
  • Candida albicans / pathogenicity*
  • Candidiasis / immunology
  • Candidiasis / metabolism
  • Candidiasis / pathology*
  • Culture Media, Conditioned / chemistry
  • Culture Media, Conditioned / metabolism
  • Endopeptidases / analysis
  • Endopeptidases / metabolism
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / metabolism
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / pharmacology*
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp160 / metabolism
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp160 / pharmacology*
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp41 / metabolism
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp41 / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / cytology
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / microbiology
  • Neutrophils / immunology
  • Opsonin Proteins / pharmacology
  • Phagocytosis / immunology
  • Phospholipases / metabolism
  • Virulence


  • Antigens, Fungal
  • Culture Media, Conditioned
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp120
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp160
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp41
  • Opsonin Proteins
  • Phospholipases
  • Endopeptidases
  • Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases