Bronchoalveolar interferon-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, and inflammation during acute influenza in pigs: a possible model for humans?

J Infect Dis. 1998 Apr;177(4):1076-9. doi: 10.1086/517398.

Abstract

Biologically active interferon-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids of 3-week-old cesarian-derived colostrum-deprived pigs inoculated with H1N1 influenza virus. Cytokine titers and lung virus titers were significantly higher 18-24 h after inoculation than at 48-72 h after inoculation in all 4 litters of pigs examined. All three cytokines were positively correlated with a 3- to 4-fold increase in BAL cell numbers (P < .036) and with a drastic neutrophil infiltration (24%-77% of BAL cells vs. 0-1.5% in controls) (P < .001). In addition, cytokine production coincided with the onset of general and respiratory symptoms of influenza and with the development of a necrotizing bronchopneumonia. This study is the first demonstration of TNF-alpha and IL-1 in BAL fluids of a natural influenza virus host. It documents that pigs may be a highly valuable experimental model in human influenza virus pneumonia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / chemistry*
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / immunology
  • Bronchopneumonia / diagnosis
  • Bronchopneumonia / virology
  • Germ-Free Life
  • Influenza A virus / growth & development
  • Influenza A virus / immunology*
  • Interferon-alpha / analysis*
  • Interferon-alpha / immunology
  • Interferon-alpha / metabolism
  • Interleukin-1 / analysis*
  • Interleukin-1 / immunology
  • Interleukin-1 / metabolism
  • Lung / immunology
  • Lung / metabolism
  • Lung / virology
  • Mice
  • Neutrophils / immunology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / diagnosis
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / immunology*
  • Swine
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

Substances

  • Interferon-alpha
  • Interleukin-1
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha