Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a Haemophilus influenzae type b tetanus conjugate vaccine when administered separately or mixed with concomitant diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine for primary and for booster immunizations

Eur J Pediatr. 1998 Mar;157(3):208-14. doi: 10.1007/s004310050797.


With an increasing number of new vaccines available for routine childhood immunization, combination vaccines are needed in order to maintain or achieve a high compliance with recommended immunization programmes. In a prospective, randomized, comparative, multi-centre study, 822 healthy infants were enrolled to receive three doses of either a candidate or a commercially available Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine concomitantly with diphtheria-, tetanus- acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine. Study subjects were randomly allocated to one of the following groups: (1) separate, or (2) mixed injection of DTaP and candidate Hib vaccine, or (3) separate injection of DTaP and commercial Hib vaccine. One year later the first 189 study subjects received either separate or mixed injections of the same Hib and DTaP vaccines as booster doses. Evaluation of reactogenicity was based on diary cards completed by parents. Immunogenicity was documented by measuring IgG antibody concentrations in serum samples taken before and 4 weeks after primary and booster vaccination. No serious adverse events occurred and most local and systemic reactions were mild to moderate. Booster doses were more reactogenic than primary doses with all groups. Antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were similar to those seen with DTaP alone. All but one subject had protective antibody concentrations against diphtheria and tetanus. Primary immune response to the Hib vaccine was significantly lower in the group receiving the mixed Hib-DTaP vaccine, however, > or = 95% of vaccinees had anti-Hib antibody concentrations > or = 0.15 microg/ml and there was a marked booster response (> 100-fold) in all groups.

Conclusions: Mixing DTaP and Hib vaccines for primary immunization caused a decrease in anti-Hib antibody response, although after primary immunization as after booster doses, all subjects showed antibody concentrations considered to be protective for invasive Hib disease. Mixing of the vaccines did not result in increased reactogenicity.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / analysis
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Diphtheria / immunology*
  • Diphtheria / prevention & control
  • Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine / administration & dosage*
  • Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine / immunology
  • Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Haemophilus Infections / immunology*
  • Haemophilus Infections / prevention & control
  • Haemophilus Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Haemophilus Vaccines / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunization, Secondary / methods
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Tetanus / immunology*
  • Tetanus / prevention & control
  • Tetanus Toxoid / administration & dosage*
  • Tetanus Toxoid / immunology
  • Vaccines, Conjugate / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Conjugate / immunology
  • Whooping Cough / immunology*
  • Whooping Cough / prevention & control


  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine
  • Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines
  • Haemophilus Vaccines
  • Haemophilus influenza type b polysaccharide vaccine-tetanus toxin conjugate
  • Tetanus Toxoid
  • Vaccines, Conjugate
  • diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-haemophilus b conjugate vaccine