Structure/function analyses of recombinant variants of human factor Xa: factor Xa incorporation into prothrombinase on the thrombin-activated platelet surface is not mimicked by synthetic phospholipid vesicles

Biochemistry. 1998 Apr 7;37(14):5029-38. doi: 10.1021/bi972428p.


This report describes the expression, purification, and characterization of a series of recombinant factor Xa variants bearing aspartate substitutions for each of the glutamate residues which normally undergo gamma-carboxylation. Factor X was expressed in human embryonic kidney cells and purified from conditioned media by immunoaffinity and hydroxylapatite chromatography. Factor X was activated with Russell's viper venom factor X activator, and single-chain unactivated factor X was removed from activated factor X by size-exclusion chromatography. Recombinant wild-type factor Xa had normal activity in a clotting assay, and mutants with aspartate substitutions for glas residues 16, 26, and 29 had no detectable clotting activity. In purified component assays, these gla variants had essentially no detectable activity in the prothrombinase complex assembled on synthetic phospholipid vesicles but had significant activity when the prothrombinase was assembled on thrombin-activated platelets. In addition, the gla 32 variant had normal activity in the platelet prothrombinase but diminished activity in prothrombinase assembled on synthetic PSPC vesicles. These differences were not accounted for by the total phospholipid composition of the thrombin-activated platelet membrane. We have produced fully active recombinant human factor Xa and demonstrated that gla residues 16, 26, and 29 are critical for normal activity of factor Xa. More importantly, this study provides an extensive characterization of macromolecular enzyme complex formation with gla variants of a vitamin K-dependent coagulation protein and provides evidence that prothrombinase complex assembly on thrombin-activated platelets is not equivalent to assembly on synthetic phospholipid vesicles. The data suggest that thrombin-activated platelets possess some element(s) (other than 30% phosphatidyl serine or factor Va), presumably either protein or phospholipid, that serves as a component of the factor Xa binding site.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Coagulation
  • Blood Platelets / drug effects*
  • Blood Platelets / enzymology
  • Blood Platelets / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Membrane / drug effects
  • Cell Membrane / enzymology
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Factor Xa / chemistry
  • Factor Xa / genetics
  • Factor Xa / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hydrolysis
  • Molecular Mimicry
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Recombinant Proteins / chemistry
  • Recombinant Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Thrombin / pharmacology*
  • Thromboplastin / metabolism*


  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Thromboplastin
  • Thrombin
  • Factor Xa