A long-term study of hydroxychloroquine withdrawal on exacerbations in systemic lupus erythematosus. The Canadian Hydroxychloroquine Study Group

Lupus. 1998;7(2):80-5. doi: 10.1191/096120398678919778.


The ability of antimalarials to moderate severe disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is plausible but undemonstrated. We evaluated the long-term effectiveness of maintaining treatment with hydroxychloroquine sulphate (HCQ) to prevent major flares in quiescent SLE. Forty-seven patients with quiescent SLE who had been randomized to take HCQ (n = 25) or placebo (n = 22) as part of a 24-week withdrawal trial were evaluated for an additional 3 years. The primary outcome was time to a major flare of SLE which resulted in either the institution of or an increase in the current dosage of prednisone of 10 mg/day or more, or institution of therapy with immunosuppressive agents. Secondary outcomes included the specific subtype of these major flares (glomerulonephritis, vasculitis or other) and hospitalization for an exacerbation of SLE. An intent-to-treat analysis was conducted. Over the 42 months of study, 11 of 22 (50%) patients randomized initially to placebo, and seven of 25 (28%) patients randomized to continue treatment experienced a major flare. The relative risk of major flare for those randomized to continue HCQ compared with controls was 0.43 (95% CI: 0.17, 1.12). The relative risks for subtypes of flares were 0.26 (95% CI: 0.03, 2.54) for nephritis, 0.51 (95% CI: 0.09, 3.08) for vasculitis and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.17, 2.41) for flares characterized by other symptoms. The relative risk of hospitalization for major flare for patients randomized to continue hydroxychloroquine was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.13, 2.60). While the results are not statistically significant, they are compatible with the clinical belief that HCQ has a long-term protective effect against major disease flares in SLE and suggest that on average, HCQ use reduces major flares by 57% (95% CI: 83% reduction to 12% increase).

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antimalarials / administration & dosage
  • Antimalarials / adverse effects*
  • Antimalarials / therapeutic use
  • Azathioprine / therapeutic use
  • Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hydroxychloroquine / administration & dosage
  • Hydroxychloroquine / adverse effects*
  • Hydroxychloroquine / therapeutic use
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / chemically induced*
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / drug therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / drug therapy
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / etiology*
  • Time Factors


  • Antimalarials
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Hydroxychloroquine
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Azathioprine