Substitution of Night-Time Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Therapy for Bedtime NPH Insulin in a Multiple Injection Regimen Improves Counterregulatory Hormonal Responses and Warning Symptoms of Hypoglycaemia in IDDM

Diabetologia. 1998 Mar;41(3):322-9. doi: 10.1007/s001250050910.

Abstract

In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) good glycaemic control confers an enhanced risk of hypoglycaemia. Nocturnal hypoglycaemia occurs frequently and contributes to the syndrome of hypoglycaemia unawareness. In order to avoid nocturnal hypoglycaemia we substituted night-time continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy in 14 patients with well-controlled IDDM using a multiple injection regimen for the more variable bedtime NPH insulin. During a stepwise hypoglycaemic clamp we studied the effect of this regimen on counterregulatory hormonal responses, warning symptoms and cognitive function. In addition, we investigated the incidence of daytime hypoglycaemia and the acceptability of night-time CSII treatment. CSII was associated with a lower frequency of hypoglycaemia (mean+/-SEM): 16.1+/-3.1 vs 23.6+/-3.3) episodes during the last 6 weeks of treatment, p=0.03 (CSII vs NPH)) with maintenance of good glycaemic control (HbA1c 7.2+/-0.2 vs 7.1+/-0.2 %, p=0.2). Hypoglycaemic thresholds for the growth hormone response and for autonomic symptoms were lower for CSII treatment than for NPH treatment. Of 14 patients 6 decided to continue with the nocturnal CSII treatment. In conclusion, nocturnal CSII improves warning symptoms and counterregulatory hormonal responses to hypoglycaemia and is an acceptable treatment strategy for patients suffering from hypoglycaemia unawareness, as demonstrated in this acute feasibility study.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Circadian Rhythm / physiology
  • Cognition Disorders / etiology
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Female
  • Glucose / administration & dosage
  • Glucose / therapeutic use
  • Glucose Clamp Technique
  • Hormones / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / blood
  • Hyperglycemia / prevention & control
  • Hypoglycemia / etiology
  • Hypoglycemia / metabolism
  • Hypoglycemia / prevention & control*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Infusion Pumps
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / adverse effects
  • Insulin / therapeutic use*
  • Insulin Infusion Systems
  • Insulin, Isophane / administration & dosage
  • Insulin, Isophane / adverse effects
  • Insulin, Isophane / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care
  • Perception

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Hormones
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Insulin, Isophane
  • Glucose