Progression of cervical cancer is associated with excessive circulating levels of cytokines, which are known to be modulators of tumor angiogenesis. The concentrations of cytokines and growth factors were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays in the serum of 61 women in various stages of cancer [stage 0 (n = 6), stage I (n = 15), stage II (n = 15), stage III (n = 15), and stage IV (n = 10)] and of 20 healthy control subjects. Our results indicated that b-FGF and TNF-beta levels were significantly elevated in stage I, and serum levels of TGF-beta and IL-7 were elevated in stages II-IV of invasive carcinoma. Our experimental subjects had significantly increased serum levels of IL-6, GM-CSF, and angiogenin in stages I-IV of cervical cancer, and TNF-alpha serum levels were elevated in all stages of invasive carcinoma. The serum levels of IL-8 and IL-10 were elevated only in stages II-III, and the levels of IL-2 were elevated in stages III-IV. The serum levels of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta remained unaltered in all stages of cancer progression. Progression of cervical cancer is associated with increased serum levels of angiogenin, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, b-FGF TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, TNF-beta, and GM-CSF during different stages, all of which have the potential to be angiogenic amplifiers.