According to the guidelines of the "Third international workshop conference on GDM", we have examined 2000 pregnant women. The glucose challenge test (GCT) was positive in 408 cases (20.4%) and negative in 1592 (79.6%). The OGTT (Carpenter and Coustan's criteria) was performed in 647 pregnant women. GDM and IGGT prevalence was of 6.25% and 5.5% respectively and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) 88.25%. The GCT effectiveness for GDM and IGGT diagnosis is: sensibility 75.1%, specificity 44%, positive predictive value 46.4% and negative predictive value 74%. GDM and IGGT compared with NGT women were significantly older (p < 0.05) and prepregnancy BMI was higher (p < 0.01); the prevalence of previous macrosomia (p < 0.01), previous gestational diabetes (p < 0.01) and family history for diabetes mellitus (p < 0.05) was greater in GDM and IGCT. The prevalence of preterm delivery was higher in both GDM and IGCT (GDM 12.5% and IGGT 15.4% vs NGT 6%; p < 0.01), as well as the prevalence of cesarean sections (GDM 31.6% vs IGGT 23.5% and NGT 20.3%; p < 0.02), and the occurrence of macrosomia (GDM 27.6%, IGGT 16.6% and NGT 16.2%). In addition a higher prevalence (p < 0.01) of hyperbilirubinaemia, hypoglycemia and hypertrophy cardiomyopathy was observed in newborns from GDM women. Our data show that: GCT has a good specificity for GDM diagnosis, prevalence of GDM in our population is about 6%, GDM is still correlated to an elevated maternal and neonatal morbility.