Background: There is a hypothesis that lack of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is of aetiological importance in depression. Docosahexaenoic acid, a member of the n-3 PUFA family, is a crucial component of synaptic cell membranes. The aim of this study was to measure RBC membrane fatty acids in a group of depressed patients relative to a well matched healthy control group.
Method: Red blood cell (RBC) membrane levels, and dietary PUFA intake were measured in 10 depressed patients and 14 matched healthy control subjects.
Results: There was a significant depletion of RBC membrane n-3 PUFAs in the depressed subjects which was not due to reduced calorie intake. Severity of depression correlated negatively with RBC membrane levels and with dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs.
Conclusion: Lower RBC membrane n-3 PUFAs are associated with the severity of depression.
Limitations: Although patient numbers were small, confounding factors were well controlled for and the results were highly significant. Results of the dietary data would tend to be weakened due to the limitations associated with dietary assessment.
Clinical relevance: The findings raise the possibility that depressive symptoms may be alleviated by n-3 PUFA supplementation.