CHARGE association: an update and review for the primary pediatrician

Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1998 Mar;37(3):159-73. doi: 10.1177/000992289803700302.


CHARGE association is a nonrandom pattern of congenital anomalies that occurs together more frequently than one would expect on the basis of chance. This common multiple anomaly condition has an estimated prevalence of 1:10,000. The number of children diagnosed with CHARGE association is increasing, owing presumably to greater awareness of this condition and advances in the care of complex, chronically ill children, resulting in improved survival and outcome. This review of CHARGE association presents diagnostic criteria that may define a concise, recognizable syndrome with a single pathogenetic basis. This review also summarizes our current understanding of the management for this complex and chronic multiple congenital anomaly condition and discusses the pathogenetic basis for this condition.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple* / epidemiology
  • Abnormalities, Multiple* / physiopathology
  • Abnormalities, Multiple* / psychology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Developmental Disabilities / epidemiology
  • Developmental Disabilities / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Pediatrics
  • Primary Health Care