Sclerosing hemangioma of the lung remains poorly understood, and it is still unclear whether this lesion is neoplastic or not. It consists of two major cell types, pale cells and cuboidal cells. We analyzed the clonality of each cell types from six female cases of surgically resected sclerosing hemangioma. The pale cells and cuboidal cells were separated by microdissection from methanol-fixed sections, and DNA was extracted for clonal analysis based on an X-chromosome-linked polymorphic marker, the human androgen receptor (HUMARA) gene or the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene. The HUMARA and PGK genes were found to be amplified with or without digestion by the methylation-sensitive restrictive endonuclease HpaII. Five of six cases were informative. Pale cells and cuboidal cells showed the same monoclonality in all of the informative cases, whereas the control cells showed a polyclonal pattern. Our results demonstrated that sclerosing hemangioma is caused by monoclonal expansion of cells, confirming that it is a neoplasia. Moreover, the present data indicate that both pale cells and cuboidal cells are derived from the same cell.