Fatty acyl-CoA thioesters are ligands of hepatic nuclear factor-4alpha

Nature. 1998 Apr 2;392(6675):512-6. doi: 10.1038/33185.


Dietary fatty acids specifically modulate the onset and progression of various diseases, including cancer, atherogenesis, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistances and hypertension, as well as blood coagulability and fibrinolytic defects; their effects depend on their chain length and degree of saturation. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) is an orphan transcription factor of the superfamily of nuclear receptors and controls the expression of genes that govern the pathogenesis and course of some of these diseases. Here we show that long-chain fatty acids directly modulate the transcriptional activity of HNF-4alpha by binding as their acyl-CoA thioesters to the ligand-binding domain of HNF-4alpha. This binding may shift the oligomeric-dimeric equilibrium of HNF-4alpha or may modulate the affinity of HNF-4alpha for its cognate promoter element, resulting in either activation or inhibition of HNF-4alpha transcriptional activity as a function of chain length and the degree of saturation of the fatty acyl-CoA ligands. In addition to their roles as substrates to yield energy, as an energy store, or as constituents of membrane phospholipids, dietary fatty acids may affect the course of a disease by modulating the expression of HNF-4alpha-controlled genes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acyl Coenzyme A / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • COS Cells
  • Coenzyme A Ligases / genetics
  • Coenzyme A Ligases / metabolism
  • DNA / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Dietary Fats / metabolism*
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic
  • Escherichia coli
  • Esters / metabolism
  • Fatty Acids / metabolism
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / metabolism
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4
  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • Palmitoyl-CoA Hydrolase / genetics
  • Palmitoyl-CoA Hydrolase / metabolism
  • Phosphoproteins / agonists
  • Phosphoproteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism*
  • Rats
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Repressor Proteins*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins*
  • Transcription Factors / agonists
  • Transcription Factors / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Transfection


  • Acyl Coenzyme A
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Dietary Fats
  • Esters
  • Fatty Acids
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
  • HNF4A protein, human
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4
  • Ligands
  • MLX protein, human
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • DNA
  • Palmitoyl-CoA Hydrolase
  • Coenzyme A Ligases
  • FAA2 protein, S cerevisiae
  • long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase