Bicarbonate and bicarbonate/lactate peritoneal dialysis solutions for the treatment of infusion pain

Kidney Int. 1998 Apr;53(4):1061-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1755.1998.00849.x.


A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study was undertaken to determine the effects of novel bicarbonate (38 mM) and bicarbonate (25 mM)/lactate (15 mM) containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions on infusion pain in patients who experienced inflow pain with conventional lactate (40 mM) solution. Pain was assessed using a verbal rating scale and the validated McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Eighteen patients were recruited to the study. Both novel solutions resulted in highly statistically significant reductions in inflow pain compared to the control lactate solution, as assessed with both the verbal rating scale and the MPQ. For all pain variables assessed, the bicarbonate/lactate solution was more effective than the bicarbonate solution in alleviating pain. In conclusion, both solutions reduced the infusion pain experienced with control solution, but the bicarbonate/lactate solution appears to be the most effective. In contrast to the most widespread current treatment, which is the manual injection of sodium bicarbonate, the bicarbonate/lactate solution does not have the associated increased risk of peritonitis.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Bicarbonates / administration & dosage*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dialysis Solutions / administration & dosage*
  • Dialysis Solutions / chemistry
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Humans
  • Lactates / administration & dosage*
  • Middle Aged
  • Pain / drug therapy*
  • Pain Measurement
  • Peritoneal Dialysis / methods*
  • Prospective Studies


  • Bicarbonates
  • Dialysis Solutions
  • Lactates