Predischarge two-dimensional echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular thrombosis after acute myocardial infarction in the GISSI-3 study

Am J Cardiol. 1998 Apr 1;81(7):822-7. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9149(98)00003-4.


Left ventricular (LV) thrombosis can be found in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). No wide multicenter trial on AMI has provided information about LV thrombosis until now. The protocol of the GISSI-3 study included the search for the presence of LV thrombosis in patients from 200 coronary care units that did not specifically focus on LV thrombosis. We examined the GISSI-3 database results related to 8,326 patients at low to medium risk for LV thrombi in which a predischarge echocardiogram (9 +/- 5 days) was available. LV thrombosis was found in 427 patients (5.1%): 292 of 2,544 patients (11.5%) with anterior AMI and in 135 of 5,782 patients (2.3%) with AMI in other sites (p <0.0001). The incidence of LV thrombosis was higher in patients with ejection fraction < or = 40% (151 of 1,432 [10.5%] vs 276 of 6,894 [4%]; p <0.0001) both in the total population and in the subgroup with anterior AMI (106 of 597 [17.8%] vs 186 of 1,947 [9.6%]; p <0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that only the Killip class > I and early intravenous beta-blocker administration were independently associated with higher LV thrombosis risk in the subgroup of patients with anterior AMI (odds ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.28 to 2.39; odds ratio 1.32, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.72, respectively). In patients with anterior AMI, oral beta-blocker therapy given or not given after early intravenous beta-blocker administration does not influence the occurrence of LV thrombosis. The rate of LV thrombosis was similar in patients treated or not treated with nitrates and lisinopril both in the total population and in patients with anterior and nonanterior AMI. In conclusion, in the GISSI-3 population at low to medium risk for LV thrombi, the highest rate of occurrence of LV thrombosis was found among patients with anterior AMI and an ejection fraction < 40%. Killip class > I and the early intravenous beta-blocker administration were the only variables independently associated with a higher predischarge incidence of LV thrombosis after anterior AMI.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use
  • Echocardiography*
  • Female
  • Heart Diseases / diagnostic imaging*
  • Heart Diseases / epidemiology
  • Heart Diseases / etiology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Lisinopril / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Myocardial Infarction / complications*
  • Myocardial Infarction / drug therapy
  • Nitroglycerin / therapeutic use
  • Thrombolytic Therapy
  • Thrombosis / diagnostic imaging*
  • Thrombosis / epidemiology
  • Thrombosis / etiology
  • Vasodilator Agents / therapeutic use


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Anticoagulants
  • Vasodilator Agents
  • Lisinopril
  • Nitroglycerin