Background: Recent studies have questioned the use of aggressive fluid resuscitation after uncontrolled arterial hemorrhage until the bleeding is controlled. However, it remains unknown whether resuscitation after hemorrhage from a venous origin (usually nonaccessible to surgical intervention) has any beneficial or deleterious effects on regional perfusion. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine whether increased volume of fluid resuscitation after uncontrolled venous hemorrhage improves hemodynamic profile and regional perfusion in various tissues.
Materials and methods: After methoxyflurane anesthesia and midline laparotomy, both lumbar veins in the rat were severed, which resulted in lowering the mean arterial blood pressure to approximately 40 mm Hg. This pressure was maintained for 45 minutes by allowing further bleeding from the lumbar veins. The abdominal incision was then closed in layers and the animals received either 0, 10, or 30 mL of lactated Ringer's solution intravenously over a period of 60 minutes. Cardiac output and regional blood flow were determined by radioactive microspheres immediately or at 1.5 hours after the completion of resuscitation.
Results: Fluid resuscitation with 10 or 30 mL lactated Ringer's solution increased mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output immediately after resuscitation compared with the nonresuscitated animals. At both time points, regional perfusion in the heart, kidney and intestines remained significantly decreased compared with the sham values, irrespective of the volume of fluid resuscitation. Moreover, no further improvements in hemodynamics or regional perfusion occurred when volume resuscitation was increased from 10 mL to 30 mL. Total hepatic blood flow, however, increased with 10 mL lactated Ringer's solution compared with the other hemorrhage groups and the increase was evident even at 1.5 hours after resuscitation.
Conclusions: Fluid resuscitation after uncontrolled venous bleeding transiently increased cardiac output and mean arterial blood pressure compared with nonresuscitated animals. Moderate fluid administration, i.e., 10 mL, however, did increase total hepatic blood flow. In contrast, increasing the resuscitation volume to 30 mL did not improve hemodynamic parameters or regional perfusion. Thus moderate instead of no resuscitation or larger volume of resuscitation is recommended in an uncontrolled model of venous hemorrhage.