Several features suggest an immune mechanism operates in celiac disease. Information on the autoantibody repertoire in this condition is lacking. The purpose of the study was to investigate the reactivity of celiac patients sera to various autoantigens widely distributed in the human intestine. Seventy children, celiacs and controls, were evaluated for serum autoantibodies using ELISA and immunofluorescence. Celiac patients had increased prevalence of serum anti-single-stranded DNA (14%), anti-double-stranded DNA (23%), anti-cardiolipin (14%), and anti-endomysial autoantibodies (63%). The relevance of this finding on the extraintestinal manifestations of celiac disease or the coexistence of autoimmune conditions and celiac disease remains to be determined.