Objective: To determine whether there is a close temporal relationship of liver disease to serum IgG and/or IgM antiribosomal P0 protein antibodies (anti-P0) and central nervous system (CNS) lupus in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Methods: The study included 70 patients with active SLE. Of these, 30 had IgG and/or IgM anti-P0 and 14 had CNS lupus other than psychiatric disease (nonpsychiatric CNS lupus). Of these 14 patients, 11 had anti-P0. Laboratory manifestations of liver disease were retrospectively analyzed.
Results: Liver disease not attributed to any cause other than SLE (SLE liver disease) was present in 8 of the 11 patients with anti-P0 with nonpsychiatric CNS lupus (72.7%), in none of the 19 patients with anti-P0 without nonpsychiatric CNS lupus (0%), and in one of the 40 patients without anti-P0 (2.5%). The prevalence of SLE liver disease was significantly greater in patients with anti-P0 with nonpsychiatric CNS lupus than in the other 2 groups (p < 0.0001). Mean levels of liver enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, gammaglutamyl transpeptidase) were significantly higher in patients with anti-P0 with nonpsychiatric CNS lupus than in the other 2 groups. Serial studies in 3 patients showed that the appearance of anti-P0 and liver dysfunction slightly preceded the onset of nonpsychiatric CNS lupus.
Conclusion: Anti-P0 may be related to the pathogenesis of CNS lupus and SLE liver disease found simultaneously in SLE. The appearance of anti-P0 and liver dysfunction may predict onset of CNS lupus.