[Spectrophotometric determination of scandium,gallium and vanadium in white cabbage leaves]

Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 1997;48(4):351-8.
[Article in Polish]


Scandium, gallium and vanadium contents in plants is on the ppm level, although plants from industrial areas can show higher concentrations of these elements. In Department of Analytical Chemistry of Silesian University there have been elaborated new, sensitive, spectrophotometric methods of determination of scandium, gallium and vanadium using Chrome Azurol S (CAS) and Sterinol (ST). The aim of this study was the application of these methods in analysis of cultivated plants from polluted regions. White cabbage from Upper Silesia was chosen. Because the spectrophotometric methods are not selective, scandium, gallium and vanadium should be preliminary separated from interfering elements. The solvent reaction was applied for the isolation from main and trace components of investigated material. Tienoiltrifluoracetone solution in xylene was used for the extraction of scandium, mesithyloxide for vanadium and n-butyl acetate--for gallium. Interfering and not separated Fe(III) was isolated using the extraction with acetylacetone solution in CHCl3 in the case of scandium and the reduction to Fe(II) by ascorbic acid in the case of gallium and vanadium. Due to influence of Fe(II) on the vanadium determination, KCN was used as a masking agent directly after the reduction. Scandium, gallium and vanadium were determined in 6 independent samples of white cabbage after dry or wet mineralization and contents of these leemnets were found from calibration graphs. Obtain results were checked by the internal standard addition method and Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method (ICP AES). The amounts of gallium and vanadium in white cabbage from Upper Silesia District determined by elaborated methods are in good correlation with a literature data, although the contents of vanadium are on the toxic level. The scandium concentration is higher than in plants from not industrial areas. The standard recovery is satisfactory. The Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method gave comparable results. The proposed the spectrophotometric methods are sensitive, precise and economical too, because they require only small amounts of reagents and simple not expensive apparatus. The methods can be recommended for many laboratories to the analytical control of white cabbage and after adaptation to the other plant material analysis.

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Brassica / chemistry*
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods
  • Environmental Pollution / analysis
  • Gallium / analysis*
  • Poland
  • Scandium / analysis*
  • Spectrophotometry
  • Vanadium / analysis*


  • Vanadium
  • Gallium
  • Scandium