Scedosporium apiospermum (Pseudallescheria boydii) infection in a heart transplant recipient: a case of mistaken identity

J Heart Lung Transplant. 1998 Mar;17(3):321-4.


We report a case of fatal central nervous system infection with Scedosporium apiospermum (Pseudallescheria boydii) in a heart transplant recipient. This ubiquitous fungus is known to cause mycetoma and localized infections in patients with otherwise normal conditions. Disseminated infections occur rarely and are seen primarily in patients who are receiving immunosuppressive medications or who have neutropenia. Often life-threatening when infection is disseminated and involves the central nervous system, this diagnosis is difficult to make rapidly because S. apiospermum (P. boydii) mimics Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp., both clinically and histopathologically. Imidazoles such as miconazole, but not amphotericin B, are considered the therapeutic compounds of choice. Improved diagnostic and treatment options are needed to optimize management of infections with S. apiospermum (P. boydii).

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Brain Diseases / microbiology*
  • Central Nervous System Diseases / microbiology
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Heart Transplantation*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mycetoma / diagnosis*
  • Mycetoma / microbiology
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Pseudallescheria / isolation & purification*