We prospectively studied features of pyogenic bacterial pneumonia in 263 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus-infected inpatients over a 6-month study period. Risk factors for bacterial pneumonia were examined by a case-control study that included 33 cases who presented with at least one episode of bacterial pneumonia and 80 controls without bacterial pneumonia. The estimated cumulative incidence of bacterial pneumonia per year was 12.5 cases per 100 inpatients (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.8-17.2). The 38 episodes of bacterial pneumonia that occurred in the 33 inpatients were mainly unilateral, but 32 episodes were patchy lobar or diffuse infiltrates. Microbiological etiologies were obtained in 33 of the 38 episodes of bacterial pneumonia. Thirty-seven pathogens were identified, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (16, of which 12 had a decreased susceptibility to penicillin), Haemophilus influenzae (6), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6). The risk factors for bacterial pneumonia that were identified after logistic regression included prior sinusitis within 1 month before admission (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.1) and prior bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract within 6 months before admission (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.1-8.3).