Relationship between smoking and dental status in 35-, 50-, 65-, and 75-year-old individuals

J Clin Periodontol. 1998 Apr;25(4):297-305. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051x.1998.tb02444.x.


The aim of the present study was to examine the dental status and smoking habits in randomized samples of 35-, 50-, 65-, and 75-year-old subjects (n = 1093), recruited for a cross-sectional epidemiological study in the County of Värmland, Sweden. The following clinical variables were recorded by 4 well-calibrated dentists: number of edentuolous subjects, number of missing teeth, probing attachment level, furcation involvement, CPITN scores, DMF surfaces, plaque and stimulated salivary secretion rate (SSSR). In addition, the subjects reported in a questionnaire their tobacco habits, oral hygiene habits, dietary habits etc. The percentage of smokers in 35-, 50-, 65-, and 75-year-olds was 35%, 35%, 24% and 12%, respectively. In 75-year-olds, 41% of the smokers were edentulous compared to 35% of non-smokers. The difference in number of missing teeth between smokers and non-smokers was 0.6 (p=0.15), 1.5 (p=0.013), 3.5 (p=0.0007) and 5.8 (p=0.005) in the 4 age groups. Smokers had the largest mean probing attachment loss in all age groups. The differences between smokers and non-smokers in mean attachment level were 0.37 (p=0.001), 0.88 (p=0.001), 0.85 (p=0.001) and 1.33 mm (p=0.002) in the 35-, 50-, 65-, and 75-year-olds, respectively. Treatment need assessed by CPITN was in all age groups greatest among smokers. The number of intact tooth surfaces was fewer in 35-, 50-, and 75-year-old smokers than in non-smokers. The number of missing surfaces (MS) was higher in 50-, 65-, and 75-year-old smokers than in non-smokers. In addition, 35-year-old smokers exhibited a significantly larger number of decayed and filled tooth surfaces (DFS) than non-smokers. Male smokers had significantly higher SSSR than non-smoking males (p=0.012). Plaque index and oral hygiene were similar in smokers and non-smokers. Smokers reported a more frequent intake of sugar containing soft drinks (p=0.000) and snacks (p=0.003) than non-smokers. The opposite was reported for consumption of fruit (p=0.003). It was concluded that smoking is a significant risk indicator for tooth loss, probing attachment loss and dental caries.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • DMF Index
  • Dental Caries / epidemiology*
  • Dental Caries / etiology*
  • Dental Plaque / epidemiology
  • Dental Plaque / etiology
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Observer Variation
  • Oral Hygiene / statistics & numerical data
  • Oral Hygiene Index
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / epidemiology
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / etiology
  • Periodontal Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Periodontal Diseases / etiology*
  • Periodontal Index
  • Prevalence
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Risk Factors
  • Sampling Studies
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Sweden / epidemiology
  • Tooth Loss / epidemiology
  • Tooth Loss / etiology