Effect of weight training exercise and treadmill exercise on postexercise oxygen consumption. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 518-522, 1998. To compare the effect of weight training (WT) and treadmill (TM) exercise on postexercise oxygen consumption (VO2), 15 males (mean +/- SD) age = 22.7 +/- 1.6 yr; height = 175.0 +/- 6.2 cm; mass = 82.0 +/- 14.3 kg) performed a 27-min bout of WT and a 27-min bout of TM exercise at matched rates of VO2. WT consisted of performing two circuits of eight exercises at 60% of each subject's one repetition maximum with a work/rest ratio of 45 s/60 s. Approximately 5 d after WT each subject walked or jogged on the TM at a pace that elicited an average VO2 matched with his mean value during WT. VO2 was measured continuously during exercise and the first 30 min into recovery and at 60 and 90 min into recovery. VO2 during WT (1.58 L.min-1) and TM exercise (1.55 L.min-1) were not significantly (P > 0.05) different; thus the two activities were matched for VO2. Total oxygen consumption during the first 30 min of recovery was significantly higher (P < 0.05) as a result of WT (19.0 L) compared with that during TM exercise (12.7 L). However, VO2 values at 60 (0.32 vs 0.29 L.min-1), and 90 min (0.33 vs 0.30 L.min-1) were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between WT and TM exercise, respectively. The results suggest that, during the first 30 min following exercise. WT elicits a greater elevated postexercise VO2 than TM exercise when the two activities are performed at matched VO2 and equal durations. Therefore, total energy expenditure as a consequence of WT will be underestimated if based on exercise VO2 only.