Dietary intake and adequacy of vitamin K

J Nutr. 1998 May;128(5):785-8. doi: 10.1093/jn/128.5.785.


The current daily recommended dietary allowance for vitamin K is 1 microg/kg. Reliable measurements of vitamin K content in foods are now available, and data from 11 studies of vitamin K intake indicate that the mean intake of young adults is approximately 80 microg phylloquinone/d and that older adults consume approximately 150 microg/d. The vitamin K concentration in most foods is very low (<10 microg/100 g), and the majority of the vitamin is obtained from a few leafy green vegetables and four vegetable oils (soybean, cottonseed, canola and olive) that contain high amounts. Limited data indicate that absorption of phylloquinone from a food matrix is poor. Hydrogenated oils also contain appreciable amounts of 2', 3'-dihydrophylloquinone of unknown physiological importance. Menaquinones absorbed from the diet or the gut appear to provide only a minor portion of the human daily requirement. Measures of the extent to which plasma prothrombin or serum osteocalcin lack essential gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues formed by vitamin K action, or the urinary excretion of this amino acid, provide more sensitive measures of vitamin K status than measures of plasma phylloquinone or insensitive clotting assays.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Diet / standards*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Policy
  • Vitamin K / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin K / chemistry
  • Vitamin K / metabolism
  • Vitamin K Deficiency* / blood
  • Vitamin K Deficiency* / metabolism
  • Vitamin K Deficiency* / physiopathology


  • Vitamin K