To study the feasibility of creating a radiocephalic hemodialysis fistula in elderly and diabetic patients, we prospectively studied 176 patients undergoing the first permanent vascular access creation and followed the outcome of fistula until primary failure or success was assessed. Color duplex ultrasonography was used to measure the blood flow rate. Fistula blood flow rate was significantly smaller in elderly patients, however, it was > 400 ml/min in over 78% of the elderly patients with successful fistulas. There was no difference in fistula blood flow rate between nondiabetics and diabetics. Dialysis adequacy (Kt/V) via fistula was the same between age groups and between diabetes mellitus status. Old age or diabetes per se did not significantly predispose a new fistula to primary failure, but concurrent old age and diabetes markedly increase the risk. In conclusion, a good primary outcome of newly created radiocephalic fistula and adequate dialysis via fistula were demonstrated for elderly and diabetic patients. However, the longevity of fistula in elderly and diabetic patients needs further study.