81 cases of tuberculosis infection (17) and disease (64), seen between 1977 and 1995 at St Göran's Children's hospital, Stockholm, Sweden are reviewed. The incidence of tuberculosis disease increased from 1 to 6/10(5) children/y. The increase was due to immigration from high-prevalence countries, with an incidence of 20/10(5) in a partly segregated suburb. Most of the children were foreign-born. Of the 31 0-4-y-old cases, 19 were born in Sweden, and 7 had received BCG vaccination. For Swedish-born children with Swedish-born parents, the incidence of tuberculosis disease remained stable at < 0.5. 50 patients were symptomatic when first seen (60% pulmonary tuberculosis, 8% military tuberculosis, 25%, cervical adenitis, 15% other extrapulmonary tuberculosis). There was 1 death, and in 2 children complicated tuberculosis courses. Side effects of drug therapy were seen in 5% of the children. In conclusion, tuberculosis remains an important differential diagnosis in children of immigrants from high-prevalence countries for at least 5 y after settlement in Sweden. The practice of delaying BCG vaccination of them until 6 months of age can be disputed.