The distribution of a metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR2 in the central nervous system was immunohistochemically examined in the rat and mouse with a monoclonal antibody raised against an N-terminal sequence of rat mGluR2 (amino acid residues 87-134). Neuronal cell bodies with mGluR2-like immunoreactivity (mGluR2-LI) were clearly shown in the horizontal cells of Cajal in the cerebral cortex, neurons in the triangular septal nucleus and medial mammillary nucleus, Golgi cells and the unipolar brush cells in the cerebellar cortex, and Golgi-like and unipolar brush-like cells in the cochlear nucleus. Neuropil was intensely immunostained in the accessory olfactory bulb, bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract, neocortex, cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex, subicular and entorhinal cortices, stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1 and CA3, molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, periamygdaloid cortex, basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, bed nucleus of the anterior commissure, caudate-putamen, accumbens nucleus, thalamic reticular nucleus, anteroventral and paraventricular thalamic nuclei, granular layer of the cerebellar cortex, anterior and ventral tegmental nuclei, granular layer of the cochlear nucleus, and parvicellular part of the lateral reticular nucleus. Many axons in the white matter and fiber bundles were also immunostained. No glial cells with mGluR2-LI were found. No particular species differences were found in the distribution pattern of mGluR2-LI between the rat and mouse. The results indicate that mGluR2 is expressed not only in somato-dendritic domain, but also in axonal domain of excitatory and inhibitory neurons.