Presenilin-1 (PS-1) has been identified as the protein encoded by the chromosome 14 locus that, when mutated, leads to familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). The role PS-1 plays in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. Using a set of antibodies raised against PS-1 synthetic peptides, polyclonal antibody to amyloid beta protein (Abeta) and end-specific antibodies against Abeta40, and Abeta42, immunohistochemical studies were performed on brain sections obtained from AD cases and controls. The PS-1 antibodies clearly stained amyloid angiopathies in AD-affected brains, but no recognizable immunoreactions were observed in any other vessels free from amyloid involvement in either AD-affected brains or controls. Abeta antibodies and the end-specific antibody against Abeta40 also decorated amyloid angiopathies, showing localization similar to that of PS-1. Western blot analyses predominantly detected protein band polypeptide species of a 50 kDa, band, presumably full-length PS-1 protein with N-terminus antisera, since these antibodies turned out to recognize a 50-kDa full-length band in cell lysate of transfected HeLa cell overexpressing PS-1. In addition, we recognized 30, 27 and 25 kDa proteins in both AD and control brain homogenate with these antibodies. In microvessel fractions extracted from brain homogenates, the 50, and 27 kDa fragments were observed in AD-affected brains but not in those of controls. C-terminus rabbit antisera reacted strongly with the 33 and 27 kDa bands, and additionally detected a small amount of full-length PS-1 protein in extracts from AD and control brains. Our present data indicate that PS-1 might be involved in the pathogenesis of amyloid angiopathy in the AD brain.
Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.