We have previously reported the purification of two closely related nucleic acid binding proteins, p34 and p37, from Trypanosoma brucei and the cloning and sequencing of the two genes encoding these two proteins. The predicted primary structures of the two proteins are nearly identical with one major and several minor differences. Three sequence motifs have been identified in both proteins: an N-terminal alanine, proline, and lysine rich domain, one and a half internal consensus RNA binding domains, and a C-terminal KKDX repeat region. p34 and p37 bind preferentially to heterogeneous RNA as compared with other nucleic acids. Here, we report the developmental regulation of the expression of these two highly related proteins and their intracellular localization in T. brucei. The results indicate that these two RNA binding proteins are differently regulated through the Trypanosoma brucei life cycle. The steady state level of p34 transcript and protein are highest in the procyclic form. In bloodstream form, however, the p34 message is readily detectable, while the protein is not detectable. The p37 transcript level is nearly as high as that for p34 in procyclic form, while the p37 protein level is low. In bloodstream form p37 protein does correlate with the relative abundance of the steady state mRNA level. The two proteins have been localized to the nucleus by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation.