Lethal white foal syndrome (LWFS) is a congenital anomaly of horses characterized by a white coat colour and aganglionosis of the bowel, which is similar to Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). We decided to investigate possible mutations of the endothelin-B receptor gene ( EDNRB ) in LWFS as recent studies in mutant rodents and some patients have demonstrated EDNRB defects. First, we identified a full-length cDNA for horse EDNRB . This cDNA fragment contained a 1329 bp open reading frame which encoded 443 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence was 89, 91 and 85% identical to human, bovine and mouse as well as rat EDNRB respectively, but only 55% identical to the human, bovine and rat endothelin A receptor (EDNRA). Secondly, sequence analysis, together with allele-specific PCR and the amplification-created restriction site (ACRS) technique, revealed a dinucleotide TC-->AG mutation, which changed isoleucine to lysine in the predicted first transmembrane domain of the EDNRB protein. This was associated with LWFS when homozygous and with the overo phenotype when heterozygous.