Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumour suppressor gene. The disease is characterized by a broad phenotypic spectrum that can include seizures, mental retardation, renal dysfunction and dermatological abnormalities. TSC2 encodes tuberin, a putative GTPase activating protein for rap1 and rab5. The TSC1 gene was recently identified and codes for hamartin, a novel protein with no significant homology to tuberin or any other known vertebrate protein. Here, we show that hamartin and tuberin associate physically in vivo and that the interaction is mediated by predicted coiled-coil domains. Our data suggest that hamartin and tuberin function in the same complex rather than in separate pathways.