The Scandinavian Odor-Identification Test: development, reliability, validity and normative data

Acta Otolaryngol. 1998 Mar;118(2):226-34. doi: 10.1080/00016489850154946.


The Scandinavian Odor-Identification Test (SOIT) was developed to address the need for a culturally valid odor-identification test for clinical use on the Scandinavian population that (i) has good ability to generalize performance to olfactory status, (ii) assesses olfactory and trigeminal function separately, (iii) requires only limited cognitive demands, (iv) has normative data and good sensitivity and specificity, and (v) is fast, easy to administer and inexpensive. Sixteen odorous test stimuli were selected that were relatively identifiable, familiar, strong in intensity and pleasant according to healthy participants. Four response alternatives were then selected for each test stimulus based on a confusion matrix of identification rates obtained from healthy participants, in a manner that controlled for task difficulty. Results on the SOIT from healthy persons and hyposmic patients showed satisfactory test-retest reliability, split-half reliability and validity. Cut-off scores for olfactory diagnosis (normosmia, hyposmia, anosmia) based on normative data obtained from 171 healthy persons showed a satisfactory sensitivity and specificity of the SOIT. Assessment of 22 anosmic patients with the SOIT revealed that three of the test stimuli were significant trigeminal stimulants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odorants*
  • Olfaction Disorders / diagnosis
  • Reference Values
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
  • Sensation Disorders / diagnosis
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sensory Thresholds / physiology*
  • Smell / physiology*