Mutational analysis of novel effector domains in Rac1 involved in the activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) oxidase

Biochemistry. 1998 May 19;37(20):7147-56. doi: 10.1021/bi9800404.


The small molecular weight GTP-binding protein Rac (1 or 2) is an obligatory participant in the activation of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase. Active NADPH oxidase can be reconstituted in a cell-free system, consisting of phagocyte-derived membranes, containing cytochrome b559, and the recombinant cytosolic proteins p47-phox, p67-phox, and Rac, supplemented with an anionic amphiphile as an activator. The cell-free system was used before for the analysis of structural requirements of individual components participating in the assembly of NADPH oxidase. In earlier work, we mapped four previously unidentified domains in Rac1, encompassing residues 73-81 (a), 103-107 (b), 123-133 (c), and 163-169 (d), as important for cell-free NADPH oxidase activation. The domains were defined by assessing the activation inhibitory effect of a series of overlapping peptides, spanning the entire length of Rac1 [Joseph, G., and Pick, E. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 29079-29082]. We now used the construction of Rac1/H-Ras chimeras, domain deletion, and point mutations, to ascertain the functional relevance of three domains (b, c, and d) predicted by "peptide walking" and to determine the importance of specific residues within these domains. This methodology firmly establishes the involvement of domains b and d in the activation of NADPH oxidase by Rac1 and identifies H103 and K166, respectively, as residues critical for the effector function of these two domains. The functional significance of domain c (insert region) could not be confirmed, as shown by the minor effect of deleting this domain on NADPH oxidase activation. Analysis of the three-dimensional structure of Rac1 reveals that residues H103 and K166 are exposed on the surface of the molecule. Modeling of the activity-impairing point mutations suggests that the effect on the ability to activate NADPH oxidase depends on the side chains of the mutated amino acids and not on changes in the global structure of the protein. In conclusion, we demonstrate the existence of two novel effector sites in Rac1, necessary for supporting NADPH oxidase activation, supplementing the canonical N-terminal effector region.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Substitution / genetics
  • Animals
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Enzyme Activation / genetics
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / chemistry*
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Models, Molecular
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • NADPH Oxidases / chemistry
  • NADPH Oxidases / genetics
  • NADPH Oxidases / metabolism*
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • Point Mutation
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary*
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / chemical synthesis
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • rac GTP-Binding Proteins


  • Phosphoproteins
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • NADPH Oxidases
  • neutrophil cytosolic factor 1
  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • rac GTP-Binding Proteins