The multi-step nature of carcinogenesis and the implications for risk analysis

Int J Radiat Biol. 1998 Apr;73(4):373-6. doi: 10.1080/095530098142194.


Purpose: For the purposes of constructing biologically realistic models of radiation cancer risk it is necessary to have detailed knowledge of the post-irradiation mechanisms involved.

Methods: This brief review considers selected aspects of DNA damage response, tumour initiation/development, together with attendant factors and provides comment on the implications for cancer risk estimation and some of the uncertainties that remain.

Conclusions: It is judged from studies with animal models that, in the main, radiation tumorigenesis proceeds in a conventional multi-step fashion following radiation-induced specific gene losses from single-target stem cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carcinogenicity Tests
  • Cell Cycle / radiation effects
  • DNA / radiation effects*
  • DNA Damage
  • DNA Repair
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Models, Biological*
  • Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology*
  • Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / genetics
  • Risk Assessment
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured / radiation effects


  • DNA