The sequence of the two hypervariable segments of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was generated for 101 random Austrian Caucasians. A total of 86 different mtDNA sequences was observed, where 11 sequences were shared by more than 1 individual, 7 sequences were shared by 2 individuals and 4 sequences were shared by 3 individuals. One of the four most common mtDNA sequences in Austrians is also the most common sequence in both U.S. and British Caucasians, found in approximately 3.0% of Austrians, 4.0% of British, and 3.9% of U.S. Caucasians. Of the remaining three common Austrian sequences, one was not observed in either U.S. or British Caucasians. However, three British Caucasians exhibited a similar sequence type. Therefore, this particular cluster of sequence polymorphisms may represent a common "European" mtDNA sequence type. In general, Austrian Caucasians show little deviation from other Caucasian databases of European descent. Finally, mtDNA sequence analysis was applied to a forensic case, where hairs found at a crime scene matched the control hairs from the suspect.