Purpose: Phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotides are promising therapeutic candidates. When given systemically in clinical trials they are administered via slow intravenous infusion to avoid their putative plasma concentration-dependent haemodynamic side-effects. In this study, we have evaluated alternative parenteral and non-parenteral administration routes which have the potential to enhance the therapeutic and commercial potential of these agents.
Methods: The delivery of CGP 64128A by intravenous, subcutaneous, intra-peritoneal, oral and intra-tracheal (pulmonary) routes was investigated in rats using radiolabelled compound and supported by more specific capillary gel electrophoretic analyses.
Results: Intravenously administered CGP 64128A exhibited the rapid blood clearance and distinctive tissue distribution which are typical for phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides. Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal administration resulted in significant bioavailabilities (30.9% and 28.1% over 360 min, respectively) and reduced peak plasma levels when compared with intravenous dosing. Administration via the gastrointestinal tract gave negligible bioavailability (< 2%). Intra-tracheal administration resulted in significant but dose-dependent bioavailabilities of 3.2, 16.5 and 39.8% at 0.06, 0.6 and 6.0 mg/kg, respectively.
Conclusions: Significant bioavailabilities of CGP 64128A were achieved following subcutaneous, intra-peritoneal and intra-tracheal administration. Pulmonary delivery represents a promising mode of non-parenteral dosing for antisense oligonucleotides. The dose-dependent increase in pulmonary bioavailability suggests that low doses may be retained in the lungs for local effects whereas higher doses may be suitable for the treatment of a broader spectrum of systemic diseases.