Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a potent P-gp inhibitor, GF120918, on the systemic pharmacokinetics and antinociceptive pharmacodynamics of a single intravenous dose of morphine in rats.
Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either 500 mg base/kg/d GF120918 or vehicle for 4 days by gavage, or no pretreatment. On day 4, morphine was administered as a 1- or 2-mg/kg i.v. bolus. Antinociception, expressed as percent of maximum possible response (%MPR), was evaluated over 300 min after morphine administration. Serial blood samples were collected and analyzed for morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) by HPLC.
Results: Morphine clearance and distribution volume were not altered significantly by GF120918. M3G AUC in the GF120918-treated rats was approximately 2-fold higher than in vehicle-treated rats. For both morphine doses, %MPR and the area under the effect-time curve at 300 min were significantly higher in the GF120918-treated rats. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic effect model accurately described the effect-concentration data for the rats that received 1-mg/kg morphine; ke0 was significantly smaller for GF120918- vs. vehicle-treated and control rats (0.060 +/- 0.028 vs. 0.228 +/- 0.101 vs. 0.274 +/- 0.026 min-1, p = 0.0023). EC50 and gamma were similar between treatment groups.
Conclusions: Pretreatment with GF120918 enhanced morphine antinociception, as assessed by the hot-lamp tail-flick assay, and elevated systemic M3G concentrations in rats. The differential pharmacologic response to morphine in the GF120918-treated animals could not be attributed to alterations in systemic morphine pharmacokinetics.